Wednesday, April 22, 2015

Terre des hommes ,Research Child Vulnerability Jobs in Tanzania



Closing date: 10 May 2015

TERMS OF REFERENCE FOR CONDUCTING BASELINE RESEARCH SURVEY FOR CHILD VULNERABILITY IN THE MTWARA REGION
OF TANZANIA
Terre des Hommes Netherlands (TdH NL) seeks an independent consultant to carry out a baseline research [for 8 months] on child vulnerability. The baseline survey is expected to be carried out starting [February 2015]. The project has high demand in terms of the quantity and quality of data to be collected and used by multi-stakeholders.
Summary
Title
Child vulnerability in the Mtwara Region of TanzaniaMain Research Question
What is the impact of Foreign Direct Impact on child vulnerability in the Mtwara Region of Tanzania?Objective
Terre des Hommes Tanzania needs a baseline study of the Mtwara Region in Tanzania. The main objective of the research is to investigate the influence of rapid economic growth (Foreign Direct Investment) and its impact on child vulnerability in the Mtwara region of Tanzania. Not only to use for quality program designing and monitoring results by Terre des Hommes it self, but also to provide the government of Tanzania with baseline information for service provision and child protection. Research results can be used as a benchmark in the following years.Outcome 1A contextual analyses of the current child vulnerability situation in Mtwara and the current barriers to responding to children’s needs.
This data shall be useful to strengthen the intervention strategy of Terre des Hommes overall and to mitigate risks by TdH-NL for children and the partners involved in the program. It shall increase the knowledge of local stakeholders, government and members of the Child Protection Teams on necessary interventions and the current situation that needs to be addressed and what to prioritize.Outcome 2A contextual analyses of the influence of FDI in Mtwara on child vulnerability.
This information shall be used for advocacy purposes to inform government, corporate sector and the (inter)national community of the influence of a sudden economic change, in this case oil and gas findings, on communities, specifically on the vulnerability of children and to create a communication/advocacy tool for cooperation with the corporate sector towards building awareness, advocacy for action and to mobilize human and financial resources on a political and corporate level.
Expected fee 50.000 euro
Location Mtwara Region, Tanzania
Duration [7 months]
Start Date May/June 2015
Reporting to Terre des Hommes Netherlands
About Terre des Hommes
Terre des Hommes is a child rights watchdog and implements child protection programs (through its partners) in four regions (South Asia, South East Asia, South America and East Africa). Terre des Hommes runs child protection programs in Tanzania and started recently interventions in the Mtwara Region of Tanzania, focussing on child commercial exploitation, child labour and strengthening child protection systems. Terre des Hommes has been working in Tanzania since 1994, and recently started working in the Mtwara region.
Objective of the research
The main objective of the research is to investigate the influence of rapid economic growth through Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) and its impact on child vulnerability, as defined within the research, in the Mtwara region of Tanzania and to have extensive and comprehensive data on the socio-economic situation of families and child vulnerability.
A study on the influence of the Foreign Direct Investment on the Mtwara region and its population shall help the regional and national government to implement policies to reduce the vulnerability of children and encourage the corporate sector to contribute through their corporate social responsibilities (CSR).
Background
Because of the recent discovery of large natural gas deposits in front of the coast of the Mtwara Region in Tanzania and the consequential Foreign Direct Investment (FDI), TdH-NL feels there is a greater need for an intervention and the strengthening of the child protection system. On the one hand child vulnerability is expected to increase, because of the underdeveloped social and economic profile of Mtwara. The discovery creates an increased pull factor in Mtwara on children to come to the region and the city to look for extra means of income. Creating increased risks for them being further away from home and a protective social network. The arrival of the employers of the Gas and Oil companies, very often men traveling without a family, increase the risk of Child Sexual and Commercial Exploitation (CSEC).
At the same time, the upcoming economic activities can also positively benefit the region and its population, through improved employment rates, household incomes and if guided by principles of social protection and equal distribution might give children a better chance to access education, health services and basic needs. The influx of people and companies shall be accompanied with access to new information and infrastructure and therefore could also have a positive influence on the understanding of child rights. Since these economic factors could influence child vulnerability in opposite ways, TdH-NL feels that the dynamics and net effect is an area for empirical analysis. TdH-NL is of the opinion that it is the right time to research child vulnerability and the dynamics between child vulnerability and FDI.
  1. First of all by collecting extensive baseline data in Mtwara Region on child vulnerability at household level (by a survey).
  2. And secondly by researching closely where the processes of change related to the foreign direct investments/gas finds, affects the vulnerability and protection of children (by the means of in depth interviews and focus groups) in Mtwara region.
Specific objectives of the research
  • creating comprehensive baseline data which can substantially support government ministries and corporate sector planning for child protection in the region (7 districts, 1.5 million people);
  • setting a basis for government budgeting for child protection;
  • stimulating corporate sector involvement in child protection;
  • forming a basis to measure the influence of FDI/migration on child vulnerability ;
  • forming a baseline for TdH against which we can measure the effectiveness of our child protection system strengthening programme (in the long run);
  • awareness raising on child vulnerability and child protection and child rights advocacy.
Suggested Research Methodology and Approach
A down scaled version of the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS) for the Mtwara Region. Child vulnerability has been researched and compared worldwide for countries through MICS. These are household surveys for collecting and analyzing data in order to fill data gaps for monitoring the situation of children. The MICS methodology is based on the MDG 2015. The Mtwara Region has about 1,270,000 people and the research would cover a presentable sample of it e.g. in the UNICEF MICS report of Zimbabwe the percentage seems to be around 0.15 % of the total population. A set of indicators needs to be established to get clear data on child vulnerability in the Mtwara Region. Indicators of child vulnerability in the MICS include education, health, child labour, domestic violence, maternal health, FGM, marriage, child discipline, drug and substance abuse et cetera. There is an increasing interest on the perception of parents and children on child vulnerability in the questionnaires. The MICS4 can also be compared with data collected with the DHS.
In Tanzania attempted analyses of the situation of children have been made through UNCRC reports (official and NGO shadow reports), assessments of the MUKUKUTA (Tanzania's multi annual poverty reduction plans) and partial researches in the TDHS 2010, ILFS 2006 and VAC 2011.
The National Costed Plan of Action 2013-2017 clearly indicates the factors for child vulnerability as perceived by the Tanzanian Government:
  1. Children living in extremely poor households with significant unmet needs in terms of adequate education, health care, food/nutrition, shelter, HIV/ AIDS services, ECD services, and emotional and physical protection.
  2. Children whose sole caregiver has a disability that severely hinders the provision of care, protection and support for MVC.
  3. Children living in households with only an elderly caregiver (60 years and above) and with significant unmet needs in terms of adequate education, health care, food/nutrition, shelter, HIV/AIDS services, ECD services and emotional and physical protection.
  4. Children who are orphans with significant unmet needs in terms of adequate education, health care, food/nutrition, shelter, HIV/AIDS services, ECD services and emotional and physical protection.
  5. Children living in a household with a chronically sick caregiver with significant unmet needs in terms of adequate education, health care, food/ nutrition, shelter, HIV/AIDS services, ECD services, emotional and physical protection.
  6. Children with a disability with significant unmet needs in terms of adequate education, health care, food/nutrition, shelter, HIV/AIDS services, ECD services, emotional and physical protection.
  7. Children living with a chronic illness (including HIV) with significant unmet needs in terms of adequate education, health care, food/nutrition, shelter, HIV/AIDS services, ECD services and emotional and physical protection.
  8. Children living in child headed households.
  9. Children living or working on the streets.
  10. Children, assessed to be at risk of, or suffering from violence, abuse and/or neglect.
  11. Children assessed to be at risk of, or in conflict and in contact with the law.
  12. Children living in institutional care.
  13. Children born in prison or accompanying their mothers in prison or remand prisons.
  14. Children involved in the worst forms of child labour (sexual exploitation, illicit activities, paid domestic work, victims of child trafficking, work that consistently interferes with school attendance).
  15. Children assessed to be in immediate risk for a reason not identified above (i.e. substance abuse, the displaced children due to manmade and natural disasters).
The focus in the current researches is mainly on orphan hood and physical health, also due to their link with international programs on HIV/AIDS and infant mortality. We would like to differentiate between four clusters of indicators that contribute to child vulnerability, focusing on more aspects for each cluster: parent/caregiver factors, family factors, child factors and environmental factors. And conduct a comprehensive child vulnerability research in Mtwara region for all children between the ages of 0-18, analysing the multiple indicator clusters, but also considering other related concepts.
Suggestions for data collection
A review of literature and current available data (official) on child vulnerability and research on the influence of FDI on local communities especially on child vulnerability.
  • Quantitative research consisting of a random survey of 5.000 – 7.000 households: It is recommended that within the household one senior as well as one junior member shall be targeted. The survey needs to be in line with other national and international surveys and questionnaires (mentioned above) to make sure data can be compared. In the survey use shall be made of indirect indications to check for over- or under-reporting, scale questions, and indirect reporting.
  • Analyses of the survey data and causal effects between indicators and clusters, especially with perceived vulnerability
  • Qualitative research consisting of focus group discussions, case studies and key informant interviews. Per district focus groups shall be organized with parents and with children aged between 8 and 16, at the beginning of the field work in October and towards the end in July 2015 on the influence of FDI on child vulnerability and living conditions. Case studies shall be explored with children of various ages. Key informants shall be selected with the assistance of the TdH-NL project coordinator in Mtwara.
The review of the literature needs to be conducted first and shall serve as a basis for the outline of the survey and the topic lists for the questionnaires, focus groups and interview topics. The research institute needs to consider and use previous renowned studies and literature on the understanding of child vulnerability, specifically in Eastern Africa and studies on the influence of increased FDI on child vulnerability in developing countries, to develop a survey and research set up. It is up to the research institute to formulate a methodology on how to conduct the household survey and get a representable random sample of the population of Mtwara region.
Theory of Change
Terre des Hommes works within the Theory of Change framework and uses the UNCRC and the relevant ILO Conventions for monitoring, evaluation and advocacy. This baseline research should fit within this rightsbased framework.
Ethics and risks
There are particular ethical issues concerning child protection related to this exercise. The study should follow basic social sciences research standard and procedures on this like gaining informed consent, prior disclosure of information to participants, respecting confidentiality, acting without any prejudice, abiding by the child protection policy of TdH-NL [See Addendum 1].
Avoiding Libel in Research
Please see Addendum 2 to this Terms of Reference.
Key sources and people to be consulted
[needs to be added]
Qualifications and experience required
Research institute: Analytical/Theoretical Capability
  • A proven focus in publishing work linking child vulnerability and children’s rights, national dynamics and structural factors over the past 5 years;
  • Proven ability to produce policy-driven analytical reports, and academic-quality publications;
  • A deep understanding of child vulnerability and children’s rights in developing countries in relation to economic changes.
  • A deep understanding of the child protection system and current situation in Tanzania.
Technical Expertise
  • Comprehensive background in information/data collection and management;
  • In-house experienced field researchers (see below for specifications);
  • Commitment to results and ability to work within tight schedules will be an added advantage;
  • Able in quantitative and qualitative data analysis;
  • Good in-house IT infrastructure and support;
  • Extensive operational contact with national and local research and implementation NGOs, and their regional counterparts plus government departments and officials;
  • Substantial experience working on community level.
Finances
  • Sound financial accounting system (use of latest tools/software is an advantage);
  • Short listed institutions will be required to submit copies of independently audited financial records.
Specific qualifications for staff
  • Post graduate degree in Sociology, Social Work, Human Rights Law, Economics and/or other related fields;
  • Senior researcher preferably has a PhD and more than 5 years of experience in designing and implementing research;
  • Senior researcher has over 10 publications in academic magazines;
  • Experience in preparing and presenting research reports to variety of audiences;
  • Research and/or experience of working on with human rights treaty bodies, especially those relating to children;
  • Extensive knowledge and experience on children rights issues;
  • Excellent interpersonal and communication skills are a must;
  • Proven analytical and report writing skills is essential;
  • Language and other skills: excellent English and Kiswahili both speaking and writing.
Duration of the consultancy
The consultant will work [x] days per month during [x] months between [month] and [month] 2015.
Milestones and timeline
Time line
Review of literature and research protocol: final research set up and methodology, verify survey and validate topics by expert review and TdH management.
Conducting the household survey.
Conducting the first focus groups and interviews
Preliminary report on results household survey and focus groups, approved by TdH management.

Conducting in depth case studies and interviews with stakeholders.
Conducting second focus groups.
Final report on results and approved by TdH management.
Factsheet and 2 articles finalized.

Deliverables/style and length of report
The Research Institute will deliver:
  • A finalized research protocol including:
  • Research design
  • Final research tools (survey, topic lists focus groups and interviews)
  • Preliminary report for stakeholders and TdH-NL on the survey and first focus groups/ interviews, including:
  • Preliminary results
  • Preliminary recommendations
  • A final report, organised as follows:
  • Executive Summary (maximum 3 pages)
  • Background (maximum 2 page)
  • Methodology (maximum 4 pages)
  • Results (maximum 30 pages)
  • Limitations and Recommendations (maximum 3 pages)
  • The full report must as well include general observations about the approach deployed (what worked, limitations and recommendations for the way forward)
  • Annexes including: list of people interviewed – gender and age disaggregated, sensitive to requests for anonymity; ToR; bibliography
  • The report should include interesting quotations from participants and these quotes should be referenced with age and sex of the person quoted. All results discussed should be sensitive to who those views come from, ensuring that their views are brought out clearly.
  • A fact sheet (of maximum 3 pages)
  • 2 articles published in non- scientific/academic media.
  • All of the collected data shall be made available to TdH-NL, throughout the period.
Supervision and work arrangements:
The consultant will work under the supervision of [x]. The research institute will be commissioned by [xx] TdH-NL. The project coordinator of Mtwara region shall be the one who shall reflect and assist during the different phases of the research in close contact with the Country Director of TdH-NL in Tanzania.
The Regional Director shall be the one who will approve final documents and the continuation to the next phase.
Staff of TdH-NL shall be involved in the selection, working sessions and making comments on the following deliverables before they are finalized/ printed or distributed:
  • Research design (Qualitative and Quantitative part)
  • Final research tools (survey, topic lists focus groups and interviews)
  • Preliminary report for stakeholders and TdH-NL on the survey and first focus groups/ interviews,
  • The final report
  • The factsheet
  • Articles published in non- scientific/academic media.
Terms of contract
Terms of Payment will be featured in the Contract to be signed by both parties. The Contract shall be read in conjunction with these Terms of Reference, The research Proposal and the schedule of work enlisting all specific tasks and activities to be carried out.
Ownership and disclosure of data/information
All documents, project designs, drawings, data and information shall be treated as confidential and shall not without the written approval of TdH NL be made available to any third party. In addition, the consultant(s) formally undertakes not to disclose any parts of the confidential information and shall not, without the written approval of TdH NL be made available to any third party. The utilization of the report is solely at the decision and discretion of TdH NL. All the documents containing both raw data/materials provided by TdH NL and final report, both soft and hard copies are to be returned to TdH NL upon completion of the assignment. All documentation and reports written as, and as a result of the research or otherwise related to it, shall remain the property of TdH NL. No part of the report shall be reproduced except with the prior, expressed and specific written permission of TdH NL.
Application Requirements
Interested research institutes should submit:
  • Letter of expression of interest;
  • Profile of the research institute, including experience in similar and topic related research;
  • Latest, updated Curriculum Vitae (not more than 2 pages) of each of the persons in the research team;
  • Two samples of any written report, write up or publication related to child rights or related rights issues such as protection, participation, non-discrimination, violence, governance etc.;
  • A technical proposal (maximum 20 pages), which includes:
  • Background
  • Objectives & draft research questions
  • Proposed approach and methodology (including evidence based justification)
  • Clearly explain how research ethics mentioned above are adhered to
  • List of activities and detailed execution timetable
  • Reporting arrangements
  • Expected Outputs
  • Relevant institutional experience
  • A timeline
  • Financial proposal with proposed fee
  • Annexes (if any)
Addendum 1 Ethics and risks
The three principles of research ethics:
  • Respect: the researcher must recognize the capacity and rights of all individuals to make their own choices and decisions.
  • Beneficence: the researcher’s primary responsibility is to protect the physical, mental and social well-being of the participant. The researcher must ensure child safeguarding procedures are followed when interviewing children or when taking pictures.
  • Justice: the researcher must ensure that the benefits for participants are at least as great as the risks.
Putting the principles into practice:
These principles need to be reflected in each stage of research including: designing research; selecting participants; gaining their consent; conducting the research; and using the research findings.
Designing research
  • The research must be designed to reduce risks for participants and increase their possible benefits from its outcome.
  • The research must be designed especially to protect vulnerable participants – for example children or women workers in factories or mines.
  • Questions for surveys and interviews should be respectful and phrased in culturally-appropriate language
Selecting participant
  • Participants should not be involved in research that will only be of benefit to others – i.e. that has no benefit for themselves at all. Possible outcomes, such as a safer society or better working conditions in the longer-run, may be benefits if the individual participants consider them to be so. Some participants may feel a benefit simply from having the chance to tell their story. But it is up to them to decide whether or not this is a benefit.
  • No individual or group of participants should face more risks than benefits from participating. If the research is higher risk-than-benefit for participants, then it should be redesigned to reduce those risks.
Gaining the consent of participants
Researchers must gain informed and voluntary consent before doing research with participants. This means that the participants must:
  • have the relevant information about what the research is
  • understand it, including the possible risks and benefits to themselves
  • be free to choose whether or not to participante, without inducement
  • give their consent, either written or verbal
  • have the right to withdraw from the research at any time
  • The depth of this consent-taking process will depend on the topic of research and the extent to which it could impact on the participants’ lives.
  • If research involves children (as defined by national law, or those under 18) then their parents or guardians must also give consent. It is best to get their written consent, in (the rare) case of disputes later.
  • Special care must be taken when seeking consent from vulnerable groups, for example children, prisoners, or people with no access to healthcare.
  • Researchers must ensure that no participants are forced to take part, for example by their boss, by their parents or by village elders.
Conducting the research
  • Researchers should be qualified and/or trained for the task. They need to have good self-awareness and strong listening skills.
  • Research should be conducted in places that are socially comfortable for the participant, and where they are able to speak freely.
  • If the participant has incurred direct financial costs for participating then they can be reimbursed, but they should not be paid to participate.
  • The participants must be able to contact the researchers, either directly or through local partners.
  • If a participant reports any serious adverse effects as a result of participating – such as losing their job, or being beaten up – then this must be reported to the TdH-NL project manager by the researchers.
Using the research findings
The participants should be informed of how TdH-NL would like to use the research findings (for example in a campaign). They must be asked when applicable, and must be free to choose, whether or not:
  • they can be quoted in TdH-NL materials
  • their real name can be used in TdH-NL materials
  • their photograph can be used in TdH-NL materials
Their choices must be clearly recorded along with their testimony and/or photograph.
If it is agreed that all or any part of a participant’s testimony should be confidential then that commitment must be clearly recorded and respected. If the testimony is to be made anonymous, or with a false name, make sure that any other identifying details are also changed.
Addendum 2 Avoiding Libel in Research
TdH-NL is answerable in law courts in Tanzania and overseas for libel in research materials that are published:
  • in Tanzania
  • in other countries
  • on the Internet
These guidelines contain relevant information and research standards which all researchers (TdH-NL staff and consultants) are required to comply with in order to manage the risk to TdH-NL.
What is libel? The publication of any statement that harms the reputation of another.
What defences are there? The truth of the allegation is a defence, but only if we can prove it. This note explains the kind of proof that we need. There may also be a defence of “privilege”, even if we cannot prove the allegation, but in order to succeed in this defence we need to show we have exercised due diligence. This note also sets out what due diligence researchers are required to take.
What Evidence is required? The evidence required varies depending on whether:
  1. The information is primary research, i.e. TdH-NL is making the allegation directly based on its own information, in which case TdH-NL must hold the evidence.
  2. TdH-NL is referring to another organisation’s research, e.g. a newspaper, in which case TdH-NL needs to be able to demonstrate it has made REASONABLE EFFORTS to establish the truth of the allegation.
(1) Evidence required: primary research
Researchers must wherever possible provide evidence that could be relied upon in court. If that is not possible, they should indicate why it is not possible, and what efforts have been made. For example:
Documents: where possible, documents or copies of documents should be provided together with the research report that they write. For example, if we allege that an arms dealer has flown a shipment of goods to an embargoed destination, do we have a copy of the flight documents? Or, if we have a copy of a telex giving information, can we identify who has sent it?
Interviews: If the allegation has come out of information given in an interview, the researcher must provide either the original interview notes, or a copy, or a note of the interview made as soon as possible after the interview. The notes must be dated and signed by the interviewer.
Use of secondary sources: Where the researcher relies on secondary sources, whether newspaper articles, published or unpublished works, or the Internet, the researcher must provide sufficient details of the secondary source to enable TdH-NL to obtain a copy. In the case of a published book, this should include the name of the author, and the publisher, and if possible the ISBN number. In the case of a magazine article, the same information but ISSN number. In the case of an unpublished work, the researcher must either provide a copy of the work (this is preferable) or the means by which TdH-NL can obtain a copy.
Internet sources: Where the source is on the Internet, the researcher must provide a copy of the downloaded page which must be dated. This is particularly important as web pages can be taken down easily and disappear.
Editor responsibilities: TdH-NL editors have guidelines for sign off of research materials which include checking the quality of the supporting information. Final sign off of the research (and payment in the case of consultants) depends on the editor being satisfied that the research materials meet the guidelines in this note.
Allegations of criminal offences: If the researcher has included information in their report that a criminal offence has been committed, you should draw it to the editor’s attention. In some cases TdH-NL may need or choose to refer the issue to the relevant authorities, e.g. money laundering, breach of Customs & Excise rules. If TdH-NL is going to use the allegation in a publication, evidence is particularly important.
Names of companies: When a company is named in a report, you should provide details of the company’s full name and registration where possible, so that we do not identify the wrong company by mistake. We once had to stop publication of a report because a wrong company name was used, the initials not the full name, and there was another company with the same initials that claimed its reputation suffered by the false reference.
(2) Due diligence on secondary sources
In order to obtain the privilege defence, TdH-NL needs evidence of the due diligence of the researcher in checking the secondary sources. Accordingly;
  1. Where the source is more than one year old, the researcher must check whether the information is still valid, and confirm this has been done.
  2. Where the source is a newspaper article, the researcher should email or telephone the newspaper to check whether the subject made any complaint, and if so, whether the newspaper published a retraction or correction. The researcher must provide a copy of any such exchange with the newspaper and, if it is in a telephone call, a dated and signed note of the conversation. These steps are essential to obtain the ‘privilege’ defence. However, if the allegation has been repeated in several national newspapers, and is an undisputed matter of public record, this is not required.
How to apply:
Application Requirements
Interested research institutes should submit the below via Email to tanzania@tdh.nl :
  • Letter of expression of interest;
  • Profile of the research institute, including experience in similar and topic related research;
  • Latest, updated Curriculum Vitae (not more than 2 pages) of each of the persons in the research team;
  • Two samples of any written report, write up or publication related to child rights or related rights issues such as protection, participation, non-discrimination, violence, governance etc.;
  • A technical proposal (maximum 20 pages), which includes:
  • Background
  • Objectives & draft research questions
  • Proposed approach and methodology (including evidence based justification)
  • Clearly explain how research ethics mentioned above are adhered to
  • List of activities and detailed execution timetable
  • Reporting arrangements
  • Expected Outputs
  • Relevant institutional experience
  • A timeline
  • Financial proposal with proposed fee
  • Annexes (if any)

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